Participle Clauses

A participle clause contains either a present participle, e.g. seeing,a past participle, e.g. seen,or a perfect participle, e.g. having seen.

TIME CLAUSES

A: to replace a time clause to show that an action took place while another was already in progress.

(replaces As/ When/ While I was walking)

Walking down the street, when was the last time you found some money?

Running along a road, when was the last time you dropped something?

Sitting on your sofa watching TV, when was the last time you fell asleep?

Driving to work, when was the last time you listened to an English radio station?

Going towards the local shop, when was the last time you realised that you had left the money at home?

B: to replace a time clause to indicate that the event in the subordinate clause comes immediately before the event in the main clause.

Raising your glass, when was the last time you wished someone a happy birthday?

Taking the last sip of your drink, when was the last time you ordered the next one straight away?

Putting everything back in your bag, when was the last time you left a place in a hurry?

Opening your note book, when was the last time you started to write your essay?

Giving your credit card to the cashier, when was the last time you paid for something?

C: to emphasize that the event in the subordinate clause happened before the event in the main clause.

Having spent your money on a car, would you still be able to afford a holiday?

Having learnt the concept quickly, would students finish their work on time?

Having finished his meal, would you always go for a dessert afterwards?

Having made the move to a new city, how would you make new friends?

Having forgotten your keys inside, when was the last time you had to call someone to help you?

RELATIVE CLAUSES

A) to replace a relative clause when we give more information about a person or thing.

(replaces who is ……..)

How would you react if the person sitting next to you was picking their nose?

How would you feel if the person standing next to you kept looking at the newspaper you were reading on the metro?

If the shop assistant talking to you was very helpful, how would you show your gratitude?

If the waitress serving your food looked dizzy, what would you do?

If a person riding a bike past you too quickly fell down, what would you do?

(replaces which was ……….)

Where can planes last used in World War II be seen nowadays?

Where can books written by famous English authors be bought from?

Can you find structures built by ancient civilisations in your country?

Should we buy products made by children?

When was the last time you ate something cooked by your mum?

REASON/ RESULT

(replaces Because / Since I didn’t understand)

to show that the event in the main clause occurs because of the event in the subordinate clause. It can replace a reason clause.

Not understanding someone’s question, when was the last time you were unable to give an answer?

Not having a car, when was the last time you had to use public transport?

Not cooking at home, when was the last time you went out to eat?

Being too tired, when was the last time you rested for the whole weekend?

Having been given a lot of work, when was the last time you stayed up all night?

Very often the event in the main clause is the result of the event in the subordinate clause.

Having spent your money on a house, I couldn’t afford a holiday.

CONDITION

to replace a conditional clause

(If they are washed at the wrong temperature, clothes can shrink)

Washed at the wrong temperature, which clothes of yours would shrink?

Left unattended for a while, would you bicycle get stolen in your area?

Having been neglected by their parent, how would children grow up?

Given too much work all the time that left you with no free time, how long would you be able to stick to a job?

Arriving late at work repeatedly, how long would you be able to keep a job?

NOTE The subject of the participle must also be the subject of the other verb.

It is not possible to say Having a bath, the phone rang.

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